STEWART A. WARE
Professor of Biology, Emeritus.
Ph.D., Biology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1968
B.S., Biology, Millsaps College, Jackson, MS,
Plant Ecology. Distribution and abundance of plant
species, and the physical and biotic factors controlling their distribution and
their role in plant communities.
Specific Areas of Research Interest:
Forest composition in relation to substrate and other variables.
The relative importance of various tree species in plant communities varies
according to the their relative competitive abilities in differing conditions
of stand age, stand disturbance, geological substrate, soil minerals, soil
moisture, direction of exposure, and also depends in part on past geological
and climatic events. Most of the students doing work out of my lab have
looked at differences in forest composition in old (but second growth) stands
in different physiographic and/or climatic regions and attempted to explain
local and regional variations in relative importance of various species in
terms of the effects of the factors mentioned above. See list of publications, presentations at
meetings, and manuscripts in preparation for examples of this and other special
areas of research interest.
Factors controlling geographical range and local
distribution of rare and common species of rock outcrop communities.
In southeastern North America are found several geologically different systems
of scattered flatrock exposures surrounded by forest,
and each system is characterized by sets of endemic or near-endemic plant
species found only on that rock outcrop system or shared with only one other.
Species may be very constant, occurring on most
outcrops of a system, but yet not be abundant on most outcrops. Others plants
may be absent from many outcrops, but abundant where present. Still others may
be both rare in occurrence and few in number where present. Many of the endemic
species have obvious life history and/or physiological adaptations to the
extreme heat and drought of rock outcrops, but it is unclear whether these
adaptations might put them at a disadvantage in other habitats. Most of the
projects done out of my lab on outcrop plants have been experimental greenhouse
and growth chamber studies of adaptation to substrate type and drought,
relative competitive abilities, and life history adaptations, but some have
involved field studies of successional interactions.
Effect of Hurricane Isabel on a maturing hardwood forest in Virginia. Two sets of permanent forest plots were
sampled just before Hurricane Isabel hit Williamsburg
in 2003. Four studies now underway are
dealing with the damage done to these forests and the changes resulting from
the opened up canopy. They are
addressing (a) the effect of tree species, tree size, and topography on tree
damage; (b) the mosaic nature of the intensity of damage to trees; (c) the
invasion of herbaceous plants after the opening of the canopy, and their
changes in density with time; and (d) the response of seeds and seedlings of
woody plants to the opened canopy; and (e) the interaction between ground layer
plant abundance and deer grazing.
Peer Reviewed Articles since
(* = undergraduate; ** = graduate
Jacob R. G., and S. Ware. 2014.
Hurricane-caused tree loss on permanent plots in a temperate hardwood
79, in press.
- Ware, S., Susan E. Crow*, and Ben A. Waitman.* 2011. Mode of
substrate adaptation in rock outcrop plants: Cyperus aristatus Rottb.
McVaugh. Castanea 76: 415-423.
- Ware, S. 2011. A new Phemeranthus
(Portulacaceae) from the Piedmont of Virginia
and North Carolina. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Tex. 5: 1-8
Jacob R. G., Karyn B. Kolman*,
and S. Ware. 2011. Rapid change in sapling and
seedling layers in an otherwise stable hardwood forest: An effect of deer browsing. Castanea 76:
- Ware, S., 2010. Croton monanthogynus and Crotonopsis elliptica
(Euphorbiaceae) in Ozark rock outcrop
communities: Abundance, soil depth,
and substrate tolerance.
Northeastern Naturalist 17: 659-666.
- Crow*, Susan E., and S. Ware. 2009.
Soil type tolerance in rock outcrop plant communities: Satureja arkansana
(Nutt.) Briq. (Lamiaceae)
in the Ozarks. J. Torrey Botan. Soc. 136: 363-368.
Kathryn, J. R. G. Kribel** and S. Ware. 2008.
Effects of Hurricane Isabel on a maturing hardwood forest in the
Virginia Coastal Plain. J. Torrey Botan. Soc. 135: 360-366.
- Dale, Edward E., Jr., S. Ware, and B. Waitman.* 2007.
Ordination and classification of bottomland forests in the lower
Mississippi Alluvial Plain. Castanea 72:105-115.
- Crow*, Susan E., and S. Ware. 2007. Soil type tolerance
in rock outcrop plants: species of non-calcareous substrates. Southwestern Naturalist 51: 120-125.
- Dale, E. E. Jr., and S.
Ware. 2004. Distribution of wetland tree species in relation to
a flooding gradient and backwater versus streamside location in Arkansas, U.S.A.
J. Torrey Botan. Soc. 131: 177-186.
- Adams, H. S., S. L.
Stephenson, S. Ware, and M. Schnittler.
2003. Forests of the central and southern Appalachians
and eastern Virginia
having beech as a major component. Castanea 68:
Invited and Contributed Talks with Published Abstracts:
Published Abstracts Since
2003 Not Yet Superceded by Published Articles:
- Carlson-Drexler**, Kjarstin A., and S.
Ware. 2008. Pre- and post-hurricane composition in a
hardwood forest. Virginia J. Sci.
59: 62-63. (Abst.)
- Carlson-Drexler**, Kjarstin A., and S.
Ware. 2007. Wind disturbance in a Virginia forest: Damage assessment and
pre-disturbance species reconstruction.
Virginia J. Sci. 58: 75. (Abst.) "Best Student Paper Award"
Jacob R. G. and S. Ware.
2003. Establishment of
permanent plots in Matoaka Woods, College of
William and Mary, utilizing the NCVS protocol. Virginia J. Sci. 53: 75. (Abst.)
- Toy*, Jennifer, S. A. Ware, Alexandra E. Loudon*,
Hope Sanders*, Jared Lawson*, and Stephanie Roussel*.
Post-hurricane response of herbaceous and woody ground layer vegetation in
a Coastal Plain hardwood forest.
Awards, Editorships, Major Offices in Societies:
- Elizabeth Anne Bartholomew
Award for Service to Botany, 2013. Awarded by the Southern Appalachian
- Thomas Jefferson Medal for
Contributions to Natural Science in Virginia,
2006. Awarded by Virginia Museum
of Natural History.
- ASB Meritorious Teaching
Award, 1987. Awarded by the
Association of Southeastern Biologists
- Editor-in-Chief, JOURNAL OF
THE TORREY BOTANICAL SOCIETY 1993-97.
- Ecology Editor, CASTANEA,
- Editor, VIRGINIA JOURNAL OF SCIENCE, 1979-1984.
- Editor, JEFFERSONIA,
- President, Virginia Academy of Science, 1988-1989.
- Association of Southeastern
Biologists: Executive Committee, 1991-1994
- Southern Appalachian
Botanical Club: Executive Committee, 1986-1989.
- Virginia Academy
of Science: Executive Committee, 1987- 1991
of William and
Mary, Department of Biology